International Desk

Nctm International Desk assists Italian enterprises in their internationalisation process in all countries in the world. It operates directly or through leading correspondent foreign law firms, selected with no exclusivity obligation, serving as single contact point for the client, to which it remains close, interpreting its needs, dealing with all Italian and foreign legal and tax aspects as a whole, ensuring the quality of the final result as well as the constant control of professional costs.
Legal and tax advice and assistance to companies, with particular reference to SME, in all phases of their internationalisation process, including:

  • preparation in Italy
  • coordination or combination with other industrial partners
  • relationships with institutional investors, access to loans, subsidies or public grants
  • protection of intellectual property
  • tax planning
  • implementation abroad

First stage: indirect export

  • general terms and conditions of sale and purchase, Incoterms, letters of patronage and independent guarantees, letters of credit,
  • transport, insurance policies, customs compliance, WTO

Second stage: direct export

  • temporary groups of companies and consortia
  • distribution, agency, franchising agreements
  • patent, trade mark, know-how licences

Third stage: foreign direct investment

  • representative offices
  • branches
  • wholly owned subsidiaries
  • common companies
  • corporate or contractual JV
  • secondment of personnel
  • international litigation
  • civil and commercial mediation, domestic or international arbitration proceedings
  • Articles
  • Newsletter

The UK is nothing if not pragmatic. The pragmatism has sometime been referred to as perfidiousness: perfidious Albion. What is sure is that the UK will approach the divorce with the EU in a very pragmatic fashion. It will seek to develop bi-lateral relations with its direct trading partners. It will seek to revive the trade pre erences in the Commonwealth. It will seek independent influence in all international bodies.


On 27 September 2016, the State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs of the PRC issued the Notice on the Trial Implementation Plan for the System of Work Permits for Foreigners in China (the “Notice”).

The Trial Implementation Plan (the “Plan”) aims at merging the two previously separate systems of the “Work Permit for Foreign Experts in China” (applying to certain categories of specialised foreign workers) and the “Foreigners Employment Permit” (applying to “common” employees) into one system, having at its core the “Work Permit for Foreigners in China” (the “Work Permit”).

The Plan is in place for trial implementation in the municipalities of Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai and in the provinces of Hebei, Anhui, Shandong, Guangdong, Sichuan, Yunnan and Ningxia Hui from October, 2016 until March, 2017. The aim is to adopt the new system nationwide starting from April, 2017, after which working permits issued under the “old regime” will remain valid and will be converted into “new regime” permits on a voluntary basis.

The Plan splits the procedure to obtain a work permit into two main parts. Before entering China, the applicant must submit application documents through an online system for preliminary examination (the employer will need to register into the system by means of a specific procedure). Then, generally, the documents will be sent in printed format to the competent authorities in China, leading to the issuance of a “Notification Letter for Work Permit” (“Notification Letter”). The “Notification Letter” will then be presented to the PRC embassy or consulate of the applicant’s residence in order to obtain a visa; within 15 days of entry into China, the “Notification Letter”, along with the application documents in printed format, must be submitted to apply for a Work Permit. Finally, the Work Permit will be submitted to the local Public Security Bureau (police station) to obtain a residence permit.

The new system divides applicants into three categories. Category A (“outstanding foreign talents”) brings together, among others, persons having outstanding achievements in the fields of medicine, economics, technology, scientific research, architecture, industrial design, literature, sports, etc.; high-level personalities at certain international academic institutions, international financial institutions and international accounting firms; holders of high leadership posts in foreign government administrations, international organisations and NGOs; high level managers in foreign-invested enterprises in China belonging to the encouraged sectors of economy that fulfil certain standards in terms of revenue, employees, etc.; persons fulfilling certain remuneration standards and paying taxes for a certain amount (to be defined from time to time by the authorities); persons having invested in enterprises by means of own inventions, patents, etc.. Category B (“foreign professional talents”) mainly includes foreign professionals holding a bachelor’s degree or higher study qualification and having working experience of two years or more in the relevant field. Category C (“ordinary personnel”) groups foreigners hired based on a permit by the Chinese government or based on agreements between the Chinese government and a foreign government, trainees under intergovernmental agreements, etc..

In addition, the Plan provides for a (provisional) table that attributes a score to individuals according to parameters such as remuneration, study and professional qualification, working experience, age, etc.. Individuals meeting a certain threshold are admitted into category A or B, according to the number of points, even though they do not belong to the groups listed in the Plan a belonging to such categories.

No restriction on the number of permits is stipulated for category A, nor are there age or working experience requirements. A so-called “green channel” treatment applies, meaning that category A individuals benefit from an accelerated procedure for issuance of a Notification Letter and of a Work Permit. Moreover, individuals falling into category A do not need to submit application documents in printed format until after they have entered into China.

Category B individuals are granted work permits “based on market demand” and will need to fulfil the requirements of a “Guidance Catalogue for Foreigners Working in China” (not issued as of yet); they will generally need to be 60 or younger, to hold at least a bachelor’s degree and to have at least two years’ experience in the relevant working field.

Lastly, a so-called “quota administration” applies to category C workers, meaning that permits will be granted in the maximum number stipulated by the Chinese government from time to time. No privileged application channels apply to either category B individuals or category C individuals.

On one hand, the Plan brings unification, by merging the two previously existing regimes into one system for all foreigners working in China. This entails the obvious advantages of straightening out procedures and rationalising the use of administrative resources. On the other hand, the new system differentiates applicants based on the degree to which they meet the needs of Chinese economic policies. Notably, the introductory part of the Notice uses the expression “gather and put to use the talented of the world”: indeed, the Plan provides a privileged path for applicants whose skills and qualifications are especially valued.

In this issue, we explore the new “Project Review” rule provided for by Article 202 of Italian Legislative Decree No. 50/2016, which allows the State to revoke funding previously granted for projects which – upon later and more in-depth review – are found no longer to meet the cost benefit ratio. What will the impact of this new rule be on port infrastructure projects in Italy? Are we at the beginning of a new era? We come back to the Italian port reform issue, this time to examine the ordinance power vested in the President of the Port System Authority. Analysing a judgment of the Regional Administrative Court of Liguria, we note how case law anticipated the reform when recognising the ordinance power of the President of the Port Authority even in the absence of an express statutory provision. We then deal with the need for prior review by the EU Commission of State funding projects involving upgrade works on EU ports. On 23 January 2017 the new EU Regulation on port governance was approved. We give a first insight on the main issues covered by the Regulation: financial transparency and the provision of port services. We examine the request to amend Directive 2009/13/EC, aimed at delivering better working conditions to seafarers in accordance with the amendments made in 2014 to the Maritime Labour Convention (MLC / 2014). We also provide some updates on maritime employment agencies. We then focus on a recent decision of the European Commission on State aid, which further helps improve the general understanding of the criteria to be met in order for State aid in port and airport matters to be deemed compatible with EU law. Finally, we draw our attention to an interesting decision of the Consiglio di Stato regarding the interruption of airport handling services, which is forbidden when deemed detrimental to the public interest in operation of scheduled air transport services.] We want to thank our colleagues at Nctm Brussels’s office for their contributions highlighting the most significant actions taken by EU institutions in the international shipping and trade sector. You will also find a list of our events taking place at our Milan and Rome offices, in addition to the usual update on our firm’s activities over the past two months.

As we settle into 2017 the drama of Brexit and Trump seem to have eased somewhat. While the drama might have lifted it doesn’t mean that the complexities that these two phenomena have introduced and are introducing into the practice of law have gone away. In fact, the more we reflect on what needs to be done to achieve Brexit the less clear the situation is. This week President Trump will outline what he means by the Wall and taxes on imports of goods. From a WTO law point of view it can only be disruptive and even destructive. The drama might have gone but the work is only beginning. In this issue we have a range of contributions covering how the Russian constitutional court has reacted to the European Court of Human Rights rulings in favour of the owners of Yukos, the OECD’s review of its own bribery rules, the EU’s new proposed ePrivacy Regulation, how the European Court of Auditors confirms our understanding of the responsibilities and obligations of Port Authorities in relation to concessionaires. We explain the new Italian Save the Banks decree and show how the EU Commission has a strong role in every step of the process and look at how the Commission proposes disciplining insurance distribution agents.

Trade features significantly in this first edition of Across the EUniverse for the year 2017. It cannot be otherwise. US President Trump has said that he will change US trade policy building barriers to market access and forcing US companies to manufacture at home. China President Xi has said that China promotes barrier free trade so long as the barriers are in third countries (not in China). The EU is in the process of reforming its trade defence instruments and digesting how a post Brexit world will look.


This change in trade is evidence of wider change that is taking place around us and which is likely to continue into 2017. There will be federal elections in Germany and national elections in France. If Italy gets to change its electoral law there may well be an election in Italy. Will the forces that backed President Trump in the US win in the EU as well. The country most likely to change is the Netherlands, once a bastion of openness but now toying with the idea of giving the most votes to an anti-Islam party.


In this issue we look at the legal debate concerning an Italian exit from the Euro; a comparison between Trump and Xi approach on the concept of trade; some consequences of the excessive length of court proceeding; we also examine the advantages of the new italian “rent to buy” agreement; as well as the Multilateral Investment Court; an overview of the service sector; a further examination of the trade consequences of Brexit and finally the advantages or disadvantages of enhancing the bilateral framework between EU and US in the field of energy.

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