Ambiente & Sicurezza
La normativa italiana in materia di Ambiente e Sicurezza nei Luoghi di Lavoro è estremamente complessa ed articolata sia per effetto dello stratificarsi di normative settoriali che sono state emanate nel corso degli anni che per le numerosissime pronunce giurisprudenziali spesso di segno opposto. Nctm ha acquisito una profonda e significativa esperienza in queste materie, affrontandole da tutti i versanti del diritto (penale, amministrativo e civile).
Questi i principali settori in cui opera il dipartimento:
- difesa penale degli imprenditori nei procedimenti aventi ad oggetto tutte le violazioni alla normativa ambientale previste sia dalla legislazione speciale che dal codice penale;
- assistenza nei procedimenti di bonifica dei siti inquinati (sia dal punto di vista amministrativo che penale);
- assistenza nei procedimenti penali e/o civili instaurati per il risarcimento del danno ambientale;
- assistenza e consulenza per l’ottenimento delle autorizzazioni amministrative nei diversi profili settoriali (acqua, aria, rifiuti, V.A.S., V.I.A., A.I.A., discariche) ed eventuali impugnazioni in sede amministrativa di provvedimenti illegittimi;
- consulenza giuridica per la gestione dei sistemi di gestione integrati ambiente e sicurezza sul lavoro;
- assistenza nella definizione di organigrammi e nella stipula di deleghe di funzioni;
- audit di conformità normativa e due diligence;
- formazione continua specialistica al managementaziendale sull’evoluzione legislativa e giurisprudenziale;
- difesa penale degli imprenditori, dirigenti, preposti, costruttori di macchine, nei procedimenti instaurati per lesioni personali gravi o gravissime o omicidio colposo aggravati dalla violazione della normativa antinfortunistica (anche per le malattie professionali);
- difesa delle imprese in caso di ordini di ritiro dal mercato di macchine o componenti non conformi ai requisiti di sicurezza;
- implementazione dei modelli organizzativi di prevenzione della responsabilità amministrativa delle persone giuridiche ed assistenza delle stesse nei procedimenti instaurati avanti all’Autorità giudiziaria penale per i reati presupposti di lesioni personali gravi o gravissime o omicidio colposo aggravati dalla violazione della normativa antinfortunistica.
Che paese è l’Iran, inteso come economia? Qualche indizio è venuto da un’esposizione delle attività produttive dell’Iran alla Fiera di Roma. Un “Iran Expo”: evento inusuale, perché fino a meno di un anno fa il paese mediorientale era sotto pesanti sanzioni internazionali. Di fatto, un paese isolato dall’economia globale. Le sanzioni sono cadute solo nel gennaio di quest’anno, quando è formalmente entrato in vigore l’accordo che ha messo fine al contenzioso sul programma nucleare iraniano. E solo allora le relazioni economiche e commerciali hanno cominciato a normalizzarsi. L’esposizione di Roma ha offerto uno spaccato di una discreta capacità industriale e di un’economia dinamica, e anche molto diversificata. L’Iran è uno dei grandi produttori di petrolio e gas naturale, che fanno circa l’80 per cento delle esportazioni e sono la prima fonte delle entrate dello stato (circa il 40 per cento). Rilanciare la produzione di idrocarburi resta una delle priorità del governo iraniano. Petrolio e gas però costituiscono circa un quarto del prodotto interno lordo: cioè, i tre quarti dell’economia poggiano su altro. Tra i padiglioni della Fiera di Roma c’erano l’industria “pesante” e “leggera”, grandi conglomerati di stato e piccole imprese indipendenti. Imprese meccaniche, chimiche, di ingegneria, produttori di parti per macchinari industriali e per automobili e camion. Poi agroalimentare, farmaceutica, marmi, produttori di pelli, scarpe, abbigliamento. Con un contorno di banche (italiane), studi legali, e aziende di intermediazione commerciale. L’interesse delle imprese europee per l’Iran è chiaro. È un paese di 80 milioni di abitanti, per lo più giovani (due terzi hanno meno di 35 anni) e molto istruiti. Conta una ventina di città sopra al milione di abitanti, la capitale Teheran supera i 12 milioni. Paese dinamico, con un’ampia classe media urbanizzata e buone aspettative di crescita, un mercato che si apre. Si capisce che nell’ultimo anno delegazioni commerciali di tutta Europa si siano precipitate a Teheran, compresa una missione di quasi 400 imprenditori italiani: per imprese alla disperata ricerca di nuovi mercati, l’Iran è una miniera d’oro. Se perdiamo quest’occasione le aziende iraniane andranno a cercare soci altrove, magari in Germania L’Italia oggi è il secondo partner europeo dell’Iran dopo la Germania; importiamo soprattutto petrolio, ed esportiamo soprattutto macchinari. Nel 2011 l’intercambio (la somma di importazioni ed esportazioni) aveva toccato il massimo storico, sette miliardi di euro. Crollato in seguito alle sanzioni (l’embargo sul petrolio e l’industria degli idrocarburi, e sulle transazioni bancarie), nel 2013 ha segnato il minimo, cioè 1,2 miliardi. Poi ha cominciato a risalire: nel 2015 ha raggiunto 1,6 miliardi, secondo la camera di commercio italoiraniana. Questa volta sono le imprese iraniane che vengono a mettersi in mostra. “Dopo l’accordo sul nucleare e la fine delle sanzioni, le imprese iraniane cercano capitali, investimenti e tecnologie”, spiega un manager dell’ente di stato per lo sviluppo dell’industria mineraria (Imidro), in un grande stand che espone foto di raffinerie, operai in posa accanto a montagne di polvere di bauxite (estratta in Guinea, in joint venture con un’impresa mineraria locale), impianti per la produzione di alluminio. L’industria iraniana parte da un buon livello tecnologico, osserva: “Ma per troppi anni siamo stati isolati a causa delle sanzioni, le imprese iraniane hanno bisogno di innovazione, di acquisire nuove tecnologie”. “Cerchiamo partner per lavorare in joint venture sia in Iran, sia altrove in Medio Oriente e in Africa”, aggiunge Ahmadi Motlagh, direttore del marketing internazionale di Mahab Ghodss, impresa ingegneristica che progetta grandi opere, in particolare dighe e impianti idrici (l’impresa ha duemila dipendenti e quattro uffici sparsi tra la Turchia e l’India). “Se perdiamo quest’occasione le aziende iraniane andranno a cercare altrove, magari in Germania”, dice Davood Foroutan, responsabile del marketing di Irasco, impresa di intermediazione registrata in Italia (con soci iraniani e tedeschi). In vent’anni di attività, spiega, la sua ditta ha lanciato progetti industriali per oltre 1,7 miliardi di dollari, soprattutto nei settori della metallurgia, del petrolio, e della siderurgia. Ora “puntiamo su piccoli progetti, da 10 o 15 milioni, nella speranza di rimettere in moto il mercato e tornare a progetti più importanti”. Un paese un po’ speciale La realtà è che sì, le sanzioni sono finite e molti guardano all’Iran come a un’opportunità, ma la partenza è lenta. L’Iran continua a essere visto come un paese un po’ speciale. “Dal punto di vista legale non ci sono impedimenti”, spiega Emad Tabatabaeì, giovane avvocato che lavora a Milano con un grande studio legale, Nctm, per fare consulenza alle imprese italiane che investono in Iran, e viceversa a quelle iraniane che lavorano in Italia (di recente lo studio milanese ha aperto una filiale a Teheran, in joint venture con un partner iraniano, ed è solo uno dei numerosi studi legali internazionali in feroce competizione per affermarsi in Iran). Gli ostacoli alle transazioni finanziarie sono venuti meno, continua l’avvocato, le banche iraniane sono rientrate nel sistema swift, il sistema telematico che permette i trasferimenti di denaro in tempo reale tra banche. “Le grandi banche asiatiche sono tornate a lavorare con l’Iran. Quelle europee invece sono riluttanti, vogliono vedere cosa faranno gli Stati Uniti”, spiega. Washington infatti mantiene sanzioni unilaterali, e molti temono che allacciare rapporti con l’Iran possa esporre a ritorsioni da parte statunitense. Per le banche piccole e medie è un’ottima occasione. In Italia, per esempio, le transazioni con l’Iran passano attraverso alcune banche popolari. “Quando è passato l’accordo sul nucleare molti vecchi partner iraniani hanno cominciato a riprendere contatti: così, quando in gennaio è scattata la fine delle sanzioni, eravamo pronti a ripartire”, dice Giovanni Forcati, responsabile estero commerciale della Banca popolare di Vicenza. Oggi l’istituto vicentino ha ristabilito rapporti e “scambiato le chiavi” (cioè i codici swift) con otto banche iraniane, cosa che implica tra l’altro armonizzare sistemi di sicurezza e controlli antiriciclaggio. Finito il sistema di autorizzazioni che vigeva negli anni dell’embargo, ora sta alle banche e alle imprese verificare che la transazione non riguardi prodotti o persone sulla “lista nera” (una lista di beni, tecnologie, enti e persone fisiche strettamente collegati all’industria bellica e al nucleare con potenziale uso militare, su cui resta l’embargo). L’importante è rimettere in moto gli affari, ripetono invariabilmente consulenti legali, dirigenti di banca, intermediatori commerciali durante la Fiera dell’Iran a Roma. La ripresa è trainata da settori “pesanti”, idrocarburi, infrastrutture, e trasporti (il governo iraniano intende investire 15 miliardi di euro nei prossimi anni in aeroporti, porti e ferrovie): dunque grandi aziende, per lo più del settore pubblico. E riguarda la Sace, l’ente italiano che offre garanzia al credito. Il primo accordo di rilievo è quello firmato in febbraio da Italfer (gruppo Ferrovie dello stato) con il ministero iraniano dei trasporti, per progettare linee di alta velocità tra Teheran, Qom e Isfahan: un’impresa da cinque miliardi di euro, incluso l’export di materiale rotante (vagoni, locomotive). Il governo iraniano spera che anche l’Eni torni a investire nel paese: “Per noi è importante non solo per sviluppare la produzione petrolchimica ma anche per ridare slancio alle infrastrutture”, diceva il ministro dell’industria Mohammad Reza Nematzadeh, durante l’Iran Expo a Roma. Per il resto, l’Iran è un paese di piccole e medie imprese, proprio come l’Italia, e la fiera è stata una nuova occasione “business to business”, per scambiarsi progetti e stringere accordi. Italiani in cerca di mercati, iraniani in cerca di partner, tecnologie, design. E tutti in cerca di capitali e finanziamenti. Forse la cosa che più colpiva, tra i padiglioni dell’Iran Expo, era sentire tanti operatori iraniani parlare un ottimo italiano: persone bilingue, con un piede in Italia e uno in Iran, decise a tenere aperte le porte tra i due paesi.
China is not willing to give up its independence and autonomy at the international level, but it wants to defend its achievements, especially the economic ones.
Nonetheless, China became aware of the seriousness and emergency of its numerous latent problems, starting a political, ethical, territorial “restoration” process in 2015, named “Chinese Dream”, in order to expose politicians in collusion with the polluters.
The adoption of the Environmental Protection Law of the People’s Republic of China, April 24, 2014 amended, which came into force in January 1, 2015, was able to respond to the above-mentioned requirements.
The period from 2000 to 2015 is considered an unprecedented and remarkable historical moment in the ideological and political evolution towards the rule of law of the People’s Republic of China. A new paragraph was added to Article 5 of the amended Constitution, adopted during the Second Session of the Ninth National People’s Congress and promulgated on March 15, 1999, which provides the following: “The People’s Republic of China governs the country according to law and makes it a socialist country under rule of law.”
Since 2000, giving continuity to the legislative efforts to regulate the protection of the environment and resources was a priority; in October 2003, the Third Plenary Session of the 16th Central Committee of the Communist Party promoted a new approach to development called the “Scientific outlook on development” (科学发展观 Kexue fazhan guan) intended as: “[…] a complete development that supports human life and looks at a comprehensive and coordinated sustainable development, promote the overall development of the economy, individual and society.”
The Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2006-2010) approved by the National People’s Congress for the first time replaced the term “plan” (计划 jihua) with “program” (规划 guihua) and introduced coercive parameters on environmental protection and parameters to save energy and natural resources.
The Five-Year Plan (now “Program”) also changed the slogan on economic development from “faster is better” (又快又好 you kuai you hao) in “better (is) faster” (又好 又快 you hao you kuai), transforming it from the original “model of economic growth” to the “economic development model”, which reflected the need for a new idea of “economic development” of the People’s Republic of China.
Specific regulations were separately adopted by the National People’s Republic of China Congress in the same years; in the Property Law of March 16, 2007, in force since October 1, 2007, contents related to the protection of natural resources are separately regulated (articles 46-69). Meanwhile, gaps in the implementation by government severely damaged the ecosystem.
However, the lack of attention of the authorities towards environment-related problems were reported. Their main responsibilities include: i) failure to fill the gaps in legislation required to compensate for the deficit created by practice; ii) the responsible officers of local governments and departments, in pursuing rapid growth parameters (GDP), were not only inefficient in their professional conduct, but even impede the enforcement of laws and regulations related to environment and exploitation of resources. Measures therefore need to be taken: the 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China in 2007 officially proposed that China should build an “ecological civilization”, and in the same year the SEPA was transformed into the Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China – MEP (中华 人民共和国环境保护部 Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Huanjing Baohu Bu).
At the regulatory level, the provisions of Article 124 of the General Principles of Civil Law were supplemented by the provisions of the Tort Law of 2009, whose Chapter VII, Articles 65-68, sets forth the “Liability for Environmental Pollution” (环境污染责任 Huanjing wuran zeren).
Specifically, Article 65 provides: «Where any harm is caused by environmental pollution, the polluter shall assume the tort liability.» The system thus constituted a first “objectification” environmental interest; among the other legislative references regarding the protection of the environment there is the Criminal Code, Articles 338 to 346, and further legislation.
Inspired by the former, the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China of 2012 took concrete measures for the dissemination of ecological research supplemented by economic, political, cultural and social objectives in the so-called “five in one” model (五位 一体 wu wei yiti) on which to base the (development of) socialist modernization.
The “five in one” model is actually a political document (developed by All China Federation of Trade Unit – ACFTU) that outlined 18 essential points to build socialist modernization with Chinese characteristics, which China intends to abide by.
According to experts, China has continuously revised all laws and regulations relating to environmental protection and to liability for environmental damage; for example, in The Amendment VIII to the Criminal Law approved by the National People’s Congress in April 2011 expressions such as “the crime of major environmental pollution accident” (重大环境污染事故罪 zhongda huanjing wuran shigu zui) have become “the crime of serious environmental pollution accident” (严重环境污染事故罪 yanzhong huanjing wuran shigu zui).
After the procedures for examination and approval had been conducted by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, the legislative text concerned the subject of environmental protection, the Environmental Protection Law of the People’s Republic of China, April 24, 2014 amended, finally came into force in January 1, 2015.
The legislative process has proved difficult, even impact and results were controversial in nature, since China overtook the United States in 2006 as the world’s biggest CO2 polluter.
The current provisions have certainly collected all the information from many years of meetings, conferences, amendments and international debates at homeland and abroad to take all necessary and resolute counteroffensive measures against pollution, according to common sense and rationality principles and, obviously, not only against China itself.
Dr. Valentina Sansonetti, European Commission
The Renewable Energy Directive has set ambitious renewable energy sources (RES) targets and in order to reach these binding targets most Member States grant support to RES generation. This might qualify as State aid to the producers of renewable energy sources. Such support is often financed through a levy on the electricity bills, meaning that the cost of the levies to finance such support is ultimately borne by the energy users (“final consumers”). Some of these final consumers can however be partially exempted from these levies. Also this can be qualified as State aid if the waiving of charges is in favour of consumer-undertakings and the other conditions set out in Article 107 TFEU are fulfilled. However, this aid can be qualified as compatible with the internal market. In fact under the 2014 Energy and Environment State Aid Guidelines (EEAG), the Commission can authorise Member States to partially compensate energy-intensive users (EIUs) for the cost they bear to finance RES support that are passed on in the electricity price. The present contribution will only deal with the second aid measure.
EIUs may be particularly affected by the costs borne because of the levy to finance RES support, due to their high electricity consumption and exposure to competition from non-EU undertakings which are not subject to these costs. The EEAG accordingly allows Member States to partially compensate for these costs to avoid that they are put at a significant competitive disadvantage and that the financing of renewable support may be unsustainable.
On the one hand, the major environmental concern seems to rest on the fact that a possible relocation of such EIUs outside the concerned Member State would entail a transfer of emissions to countries where there are no environmental protection standards, or where these standards are less stringent then in the EU, thus contributing to growing emissions and increased overall environmental pollution. On the other hand, the other underlying reason for allowing this type of aid is based on economic grounds. It is argued that, in the absence of such support, the affected undertakings are likely to become less competitive and will be forced to cease trading with adverse effects especially in terms of reduction in output and environmental charges, which finance environmental and climate change policies in the concerned Member States.
Against this framework, the Commission has already approved, under the new EEAG, the partial compensation schemes laid down by several Member States, including Germany, Romania, Denmark and the UK. The planned compensation schemes in other Member States are currently under assessment. As we will describe in the next chapter, in the past the Commission adopted a different approach when assessing similar, albeit non-identical, support measures.
2. Past case practice: is 2011 the dividing line?
The reduction of the charges levied by Member States in order to finance RES support schemes normally constitute operating aid for large energy-intensive companies. According to the case-law, operating aid does not fall within the scope of art 107(3) TFEU, as the effect of such aid is in principle to distort competition in the sector in which it is granted, whilst nevertheless being unable to achieve any of the objectives listed in article 107(3) TFEU..
In the past the Commission authorised operating aid only in very specific situations, where the particular distortive effect of operating aid was balanced by particularly important benefits for the common interest.
Since the Alcan decision in 1986 the Commission has taken the view that operating aid for energy-intensive companies cannot be declared compatible with the internal market. Along the same lines, the Commission decided that operating aid in the form of reduced electricity tariffs for aluminium production in Italy (Sardinia) and Greece were not compatible with the internal market. In policy terms, these cases (confirmed by the case-law) are important because they regard the Commission’s refusal to authorize operating aid given under the form of electricity price subsidies in favour of certain energy-intensive industries based on the alleged “imperfect state of liberalization” of the EU electricity market or the threat of relocation outside the European Union. State aid control aims generally at preventing this type of aid liable to generate subsidy races between Member States.
With reference to reductions of parafiscal levies having the specific purpose of financing support for RES, in 2011 the Commission decided that a partial exemption from the obligation to purchase green electricity for energy-intensive businesses given by Austria constituted operating aid and resulted in the imposition of a higher burden on other electricity consumers without providing any environmental benefit. According to the Commission, such forms of exemption “may even harm the environment by lowering the incentives for energy saving”. Therefore, at that time, Austria was forbidden to go ahead with the implementation of such measure under the 2008 Environmental State Aid Guidelines.
3. The EEAG and new case practice
In 2013/2014, in view of reviewing the 2008 Environmental State Aid Guidelines, the Commission conducted an extensive open consultation. In this context it was raised that mechanisms to support national industries against the increasing costs linked to electricity were needed. EIUs in fact play a major role in terms of national employment and GDP and their relocation might affect greatly the economy of a Member State. Indeed, some Member States adopted some kind of supporting measures already before the adoption of the revised EEAG.
The Commission in April 2014 released the new EEAG which includes a chapter on State aid to partially relieve certain undertakings from financing RES support schemes. The Commission in setting out on which conditions financial compensation for EIUs can be granted aims at ensuring that State aid rules are correctly applied and respected by all Member States. By doing so the Commission provides a framework within which Member States can grant compensation while at the same time maintaining a level playing field in the European Union. The Commission has therefore formally recognised that those companies are generally put at a competitive disadvantage globally and deserve a special treatment when it comes to surcharge to fund RES support schemes which became too costly as of 2011.
The EEAG entered into force on 1 July 2014, however the rules for EIUs apply retroactively to all ongoing and past cases even to the ones that have not been notified before implementation and which normally under State aid discipline, should be assessed according to the rules applicable at the time of granting the aid.
Those aid measures granted in the past without a legal basis for compatibility will have to progressively comply with the requirements set forth in the EEAG from the granting moment (which could well be prior to the entry into force of EEAG) until the end of 2018.
The EEAG indicates that “all aid granted in the form of reductions in funding support for electricity from renewable sources prior to 1/1/2011 can be declared compatible with the internal market”. In this context the Commission substitutes its case-by-case assessment working under the assumption that “by 5 December 2010, the Member States had to bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with the RED, which introduces legally binding targets for consumption of renewable energy. On the other hand, the total costs for the support of the production of electricity from renewable sources remained rather limited until the year 2010, so that the level of charges remained relatively low. Therefore, the amount of aid granted to undertakings in the form of reductions in funding support for electricity from renewable sources remained limited at the level of the individual beneficiary”.
The EEAG defines ex ante quite a tight framework for the compatibility of such aid measures in terms of qualifying conditions for the eligible beneficiaries. First of all according to those rules, undertakings can benefit from reductions only on the charges financing RES support. Therefore even in case the surcharge happens to cover the financing of other measures such as research and development, transmission charges, nuclear decommissioning, islands interconnection, the Member State should be able to allocate a certain amount to the RES funding. Secondly, only electro-intensive users can benefit from such reductions in the RES charges. Thirdly, with the aim to reach a level playing field, the EEAG pre-selected the business sectors which qualify ex ante as eligible to this form of aid. The list of these sectors has been annexed to the EEAG. These are sectors which are exposed to a risk to their competitive position due to the costs resulting from the funding of support to energy from renewable sources as a function of their electro-intensity and their exposure to international trade. That is why the EEAG talks about intensity of their electricity costs and their trade intensity.
However, the EEAG also include the possibility for the Member States to add more sectors provided that the trade intensity of these sectors is at least 4% and aid is limited to undertakings with an electro-intensity of at least 20% as required by paragraph (186) of the EEAG (with electro-intensity calculated according to Annex 4 EEAG or in line with paragraph (195) EEAG).
As a consequence once those sectors are authorised by the Commission, they could then also be included by all other Member States wishing to enlarge the list of eligible sectors.
In order to cater for some specificities of each Member States, the EEAG leaves to the Member States the possibility to reduce the number of potential beneficiaries imposing additional eligibility criteria provided that within the eligible sectors the choice of beneficiaries is made on the basis of objective, non-discriminatory and transparent criteria and that the aid is granted in the same way for all competitors in the same sector if they are in a similar factual situation. This is often a possibility retained by Member States which do not intend to include all companies or all sectors listed in the Annexes to the EEAG, probably as this would imply enlarging too much the number of beneficiaries and not fitting into the envisaged national budget earmarked to this measure. However, this possibility does not grant Member States an unlimited right to identify the eligible companies as the Commission is entitled to verify whether this selection complies with the mentioned criteria of transparency, objectivity and non-discrimination. In this context the Commission already carefully assessed whether the conditions imposed by Denmark and Romania were de facto discriminatory. Denmark granted aid, inter alia, only (1) to companies which commit to certain energy-efficiency improvements, (2) if the aid amount exceeds approximately 2680 Euro. Romania imposed different conditions on which the Commission raised some observations as to their compatibility with the general principles of objectivity, non-discrimination (and the freedom of establishment) set out in the EEAG. In fact, amongst other limitations, the beneficiaries had to maintain their activities in Romania during the aid scheme and could not lay off more than 25% of the number of the employees at the time of qualification for the measure. After negotiation with the Commission, as reported in the decision, the condition was changed by Romania into an obligation not to relocate outside the EEA.
Finally, the aid will be considered proportionate if the beneficiary continues to bear at least 15% of the additional costs without reduction, with an optional cap that Member States can put in place to further reduce the surcharges paid in case certain EIUs have a very high consumption..
Against this background, if on the one hand the Commission should be welcomed for transparently setting out in advance how it will assess the aid measures benefitting EIUs and indicating the possible sets of beneficiaries which are the ones more endangered by the increasing costs of electricity and more exposed to international trade, on the other hand, a more flexible approach is still necessary, with a view to allowing Member States to perform specific assessments on competition grounds aimed at taking into account the competitive dynamics of the markets at both national and EU level (depending on the geographic scope of the relevant market). This would also permit Member States to showing which sectors and which undertakings are negatively affected by the RES surcharge. This is even more important in the context of an Energy Union not yet completed where there are still many differences in terms of RES support and its related costs.
 Directive (EC) 2009/28 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives (EC) 2001/77 and 2003/30 (OJ 2009 L 140, p.16).
 Communication from the Commission — Guidelines on State aid for Environmental Protection and Energy 2014-2020,  OJ C200/1.
 Other supports for businesses, including EIUs, related to environmental protection are: (1) a partial compensation for the indirect ETS allowance costs that are passed on in the electricity price. The EU introduced an emission trading scheme as a tool to combat climate change. Member States can partially support EIUs to address the risk of ´carbon leakage´. This serves an environmental objective, since the aid aims to avoid an increase in global greenhouse gas emissions due to shifts of production outside the Union, in the absence of a binding international agreement on reduction of GHG emissions; (2) energy tax reductions or exemptions to facilitate a higher general tax level, and thereby contribute to a higher level of environmental protection. In principle, tax reductions can be granted up to the minimum level set out in the Energy Tax Directive, while for reductions below the minimum level a necessity and proportionality test needs to be carried out.
 Decision of 23 July 2014 SA.38632 (2014/N) – Germany EEG 2014 – Reform of the Renewable energy law. As to the previous scheme implemented by Germany before the entry into force of EEAG, Germany appealed before the General Court, in case T-47/15, the decision of the Commission (Decision of 25 November 2014 SA.33995 (2013) (ex 2013/NN) — Germany — Support for renewable electricity and reduced EEG-surcharge for energy-intensive users) largely approving the reductions to the surcharge granted to energy-intensive companies, but asking also Germany to recover a small portion of the aid granted in 2013 and 2014. The court case is ongoing.
 Decision of 15 October 2014, State aid SA.39042 (2014/N) – Romania – RES support reduction for energy-intensive users.
 Decision of 31 August 2015, State aid SA.42424 (2015/N) – Denmark – Reduced contribution to financing of RES support for energy-intensive users.
 Decision of 14 December 2015, State aid SA.43657 (2015/N) – United Kingdom – Aid for indirect costs of renewable energy support in the UK.
 Decision opening the formal investigation procedure of 27 March 2014, SA.36511 (2014/C) (ex 2013/NN) – France Mécanisme de soutien aux énergies renouvelables et plafonnement de la CSPE.
 The following may be considered to be compatible with the common market: aid to promote the economic development of areas with economic or social problems; aid to promote the execution of an important project of common European interest or to remedy a serious disturbance in the economy of a Member State; aid to facilitate the development of certain economic activities or of certain economic areas, where such aid does not adversely affect trading conditions; aid to promote culture and heritage conservation; and such other categories of aid as may be specified by decision of the Council.
 Decision 86/60/EEC of 14 December 1985 on aid which Land Rheinland-Pfalz of the Federal Republic of Germany has provided to an undertaking producing primary aluminium, OJ 1986 L 72, p.30.
 Decision 2010/460/EC of 19 November 2009 on State aid measures C 38/A/04 (ex NN 58/04) and C 36/B/06 (ex NN 38/06) implemented by Italy for Alcoa Trasformazioni, upheld by the Court in C-177/10, the appeal is now pending in Case C-604/14 P. Likewise, other two similar cases were also ruled by the General Court in T-291/11, T-308/11 (preferential electricity tariffs, Italy). The EU General Court ruled on appeals against two Commission decisions of November 2009 and February 2011, ordering Italy to recover incompatible state aid from certain energy intensive users. Alcoa brought an action for annulment of the 2009 decision and Eurallumina and Portovesme brought actions against the 2011 decision. The General Court dismissed all three appeals and entirely confirmed the Commission’s findings. This confirms the findings of the same court in T-62/08 – ThyssenKrupp Acciai Speciali Terni v Commission, ECLI:EU:T:2010:268.
 Decision C 24/09 (ex N 446/08) of 8 March 2011, confirmed by the General Court in T-251/11.
 See also the letter to the Commissioner signed by the four ministers of economic affairs from France, UK, Italy and Germany published on Mlex.
 Decision C 24/09 (ex N 446/08) of 8 March 2011, confirmed by the General Court in T-251/11;decision opening the formal investigation procedure of 27 March 2014, SA.36511 (2014/C) (ex 2013/NN) – France Mécanisme de soutien aux énergies renouvelables et plafonnement de la CSPE; decision of 25 November 2014 SA.33995 (2013) (ex 2013/NN) — Germany — Support for renewable electricity and reduced EEG-surcharge for energy-intensive users. As mentioned Germany appealed before the General Court, in case T-47/15, this decision largely approving the reductions to the surcharge granted to energy-intensive companies, but asking also Germany to recover a small portion of the aid granted in 2013 and 2014. The court case is ongoing.
 Section 3.7.2 aid in the form of reductions in the funding of support for energy from renewable sources.
 From the strict legal point of view those type of acts (notice, guidelines, communications) do not have any binding effect on third parties, being soft law instruments, but bind the Commission which, if intends to depart from them, needs to have solid grounds.
 There is at least one ongoing case (SA.36511 (2014/C) (ex 2013/NN) – France Mécanisme de soutien aux énergies renouvelables et plafonnement de la CSPE) where the Commission opened a formal investigation procedure. See para. 248 of the EEAG which set forth that “Unlawful environmental aid or energy aid will be assessed in accordance with the rules in force on the date on which the aid was granted in accordance with the Commission notice on the determination of the applicable rules for the assessment of unlawful State aid with the following exception: Unlawful aid in the form of reductions in funding support for energy from renewable sources will be assessed in accordance with the provisions of Sections 3.7.2 and 3.7.3. As from 1 January 2011, the adjustment plan foreseen in paragraph (194) shall also foresee a progressive application of the criteria of section 3.7.2 and of the own contribution foreseen in paragraph (197). Prior to that date, the Commission considers that all aid granted in the form of reductions in funding support for electricity from renewable sources can be declared compatible with the internal market”.
 For an example of progressive application of the EEAG rules to EIUs see SA.33995 (2013) (ex 2013/NN) — Germany — Support for renewable electricity and reduced EEG-surcharge for energy-intensive users.
 Annex 3 to the EEAG.
 Decision of the Commission authorising amendments to EEG 2014 including two other sectors to the list of EIUs benefiting from the reduction in the RES surcharge, SA.41381 2015/N – Germany – Relief from the EEG surcharge for companies in NACE sectors 25.50 and 25.61.
 As reported by M. Guenaire, P. Lienhardt, Revue de l’énergie, 2014, v. 65, n. 619, p. 221-226, the French authorities have insisted during negotiations on the EEAG for keeping the cap at 0,5% instead of 1% as put forward by Germany. See also P. Nicolaides, M. Kleis, A critical analysis of environmental tax reductions and generation adequacy provisions in the EEAG 2014-2020, EStal 4, 2014, p. 636-649.
Between now and 2030, the challenge facing large metropolitan areas, also to change the course of the climatic and environmental conditions of the ecosystem, will be that of significantly modifying or supplementing local policies, implementing measures that reduce soil consumption and pollutant emissions, guaranteeing the protection and enhancement of large green areas, introducing effective hydrogeological and environmental reorganisation measures, and investing in modern and efficient sustainable mobility solutions. All of this without halting the development of cities and without ignoring high-quality innovative solutions.
- Planning and the need for integrated policies
The European Union has approved numerous procedures and measures that require the introduction of policies or good practices relating to many of the aforementioned themes; however, what is missing is evidence of an overall strategy that underlines how local authorities must go beyond the segmentation of the actions to create a harmony between the various aspects, recognising that unless there are integrated choices that encompass the soil, the water and the air there can be no significant progress as regards the climate and hydrogeological instability.
One could begin with an updating of the Covenant of Mayors, launched by the Commission in January 2008.
The Covenant, whose goals are the retrofitting of public and private buildings, clean mobility and encouraging new forms of behaviour, should today be integrated with the request for the introduction of urban redevelopment policies, with the reduction of soil consumption and the limitation, mitigation and offsetting of soil sealing and operative decisions to redevelop and ensure the safety of areas at hydrogeological risk.
The Mayors of big cities must therefore develop integrated plans that go beyond sustainable energy. There is still time before 2030. The Municipalities that have approved the Action Plan (SEAP) can update it, those that haven’t yet approved it or signed up for it may still do so. The same Covenant, on other hand, provides for integration with urban and territorial development, a useful window for using this tool for policies which, as we have said, are more efficient and effective.
- Urban regeneration
Territorial and environmental policies must therefore aim at a new urban development model that is less dissipative and more sustainable.
The theme of urban regeneration is a crucial part of this new approach. Regeneration which, on one hand, is “extensive and widespread”, requiring the attention to be focused on places, on their physical and functional dimension, which must strengthen and expand the redevelopment of existing heritage, activating all of the levers of new forms of sustainability, including eco-efficiency, new forms of lighting, heating and air conditioning. On the other, this urban regeneration must be “intensive and concentrated”, closely connected with the major transformation of abandoned areas and those that must be redesigned because of the changing needs of large metropolitan areas (accessible living, greenery, services and work, new infrastructure).
In this context, European policies and directives for renewable energies and greater energy efficiency, as well as associated domestic policies providing support (primarily of a physical nature) for the retrofitting of public and private buildings, are essential elements but once again not enough on their own.
Regeneration, particularly with regard to existing heritage, requires the definition of innovative measures. In fact, it is important to come up with relocation measures (considering, for example, all those businesses set up in areas at high risk of flooding), using joint public and private instruments, which make temporary lodgings available to those that live in or use (such as schools or hospitals) the properties that must be redeveloped and regenerated in terms of both reducing energy consumption and the introduction of renewable energy sources for the production of water and heating. It is also essential to introduce and regulate forms of temporary usage (an increasingly common practice in the most modern European cities) which allow properties or parts of the territory to be used in order to prevent their abandonment and degradation, but also to understand, through people’s responses, which are the best functions to plan and implement (in some cases, due to the size factor, also over time and in stages). We must come up with forms of support that make it possible to put the high number of properties that are no longer usable back into circulation in order to meet social housing requirements or to recover accessible and green areas, particularly for those cities that have abused the territory intensively for many years.
This does not mean not building but rather learning to build in a sustainable way, responding to real needs and restoring the environmental quality and efficiency of the territories.
This may sound like good intentions but in reality the expansion of the metropolitan dimension already enables all big European cities, using the planning tools already provided and those waiting to be introduced, to design and launch projects, also experimental and large-scale in nature, which contain forms of negotiation between the public and private spheres. The latter can develop business, boosting the economy and employment, while the former can have a “positive impact” on the territory in terms of reducing energy consumption and energy savings, and therefore lower emissions, the quality of the environment, green and public spaces, services and, more generally, environmental sustainability. Indeed, regenerating means innovating, developing new constructions to replace those that are obsolete and no longer usable, but also recovering land in the case where a decision has been made to densify a particular area, reducing the occupation of the soil and freeing up the part that is left over. It is in this context that we must consider the relationship between the city and the countryside and the role that the latter can play as an integral part of the city’s identity and as a new development of a more modern farming approach, with a more urban connotation but equal financial capacity. This is also another form of development and therefore of wealth and work, but again with renewed focus on the territory.
2. Decontamination of contaminated sites an integral part of urban regeneration
The decontamination of contaminated sites is a relevant theme in the area of regeneration. The cost of the measures and the complexity of the procedures make recovery processes particularly slow. Alternatively, these measures only become possible with the implementation of high-impact and high-density projects, often unconnected with the planning principles of the territories and their real growth requirements.
Over the years, the principle of responsibility that stems from the concept of “the polluter should pay”, a key and immutable principle, has not, however, been adapted to specific cases or the evolution of the local economic situation. Over time there has been no indication of the possible absence of accounting and administrative responsibility for direct measures by the local authorities, also with the exclusive goal of restoring the public accessibility of the territory, using European and national funds; no incentives or guarantees for non-responsible parties that want to carry out the decontamination have ever been established. The latter only now take action if the cost of the decontamination is recouped through the urban development or construction planned for the area. Things would be different if forms of deduction were envisaged with obligations to make parts of the decontaminated land accessible or with the introduction of forms of territorial compensation.
The impact of maintaining vast areas of contaminated land for many years must be evaluated in terms of the cost for the territory and the quality of the environment and health. It must be decided whether a contaminated site should be considered as already-consumed soil and if part of this soil must in any case be restored to its original state.
In this area Europe has not moved beyond a 2006 proposal; in fact, the protection of soil has never been associated with a single set of principles or regulations. The absence of uniform and common references between the various Member States negatively impacts on the equality of conditions among operators, limiting free competition.
 These numerous procedures include: the 2030 Framework for climate and energy adopted by the EU leaders in October 2014; Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and the European Council of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency, which amends directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and revokes directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC; the European Commission initiative Covenant of Mayors Committed to local sustainable energy of 29 January 2008; Directive 2007/60/EC relating to the assessment and management of flood risks; Guidelines on best practice to limit, mitigate or compensate soil sealing, European Commission guidelines 2012.
 See footnote no. 1
 There is no single definition of “urban regeneration”. In any case, regeneration activities are alluded to in European regulations on the promotion of energy efficiency.
 The most recent of these, in Italy, include the 2016 Stability Law which confirmed and partially extended the tax allowances for the energy redevelopment of buildings established by the 2015 Stability Law (Law no. 190 of 23 December 2014).
 One interesting example of this method of collaboration between the public and private spheres took place in the Municipality of Milan between 2012 and 2014 and led to the demolition of a large building that was never completed and the recovery of a huge area of land to be used as farming and parkland. A project deemed worthy of attention as part of the “2012-2013 Landscape Award of the Council of Europe” and which won the Legambiente “sterminata bellezza 2014” (“boundless beauty 2014”) award in Italy.
 Article 191, paragraph 2, subsection 1 of the TFEU states as follows: “Union policy on the environment shall aim at a high level of protection taking into account the diversity of situations in the various regions of the Union. It shall be based on the precautionary principle and on the principles that preventive action should be taken, that environmental damage should as a priority be rectified at source and that the polluter should pay”.
 Commission communication of 22 September 2006: “Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection” COM (2006) 231, Directive proposal of the European Parliament and Council that defines a framework for soil protection and amends directive 2004/35/EC.
Marina Migliorato Head of Sustainability Innovation and Stakeholders Engagement Sustainability ENEL SpA.
Enel is a multi-national power company and a leading integrated player in the world’s power and gas markets, with a particular focus on Europe and Latin America. The Group operates in more than 30 countries across 4 continents.
A focus on the environment, social development and economic sustainability are three key factors that are strongly guiding the Group’s strategy and accelerating its growth worldwide. Today, our industry is undergoing a profound transformation and, once again, Enel takes the lead in shaping a new, digital, and participatory era of energy.
Indeed, the combination of these factors with the strategic need to intercept, develop and exploit new opportunities led Enel to adopt what we call an Open Power approach. Open Power is our platform for growth, combining the strength of our global organization with the opportunities of a new, open and connected world.
We are witnessing right now one of the biggest change ever, whose speed and scale is unprecedented. It is driven by rapid population growth, urbanization and economic development. Indeed, one of the greatest questions of our time is how to provide the energy needed for a growing and more prosperous global population, without damaging the environment beyond repair.
Billions of us need better access to energy to meet basic needs and to industrialize. Yet at the same time, our energy systems need to become cleaner, to support long-term prosperity. The energy decisions that will be made in the next 15 years will determine whether both of these objectives can be met.
The big story in the electricity sector is now clearly that the business model of conventional utilities has no future. The energy industry is currently characterized by the huge impact of new technology: digitalization, the internet of things, new low-cost technologies, storage systems, and the evolution of customer’s role and needs are just some of the elements at the heart of the new energy paradigm.
Access to Electricity
All things need energy. Without energy, schools do not function effectively, health centers will have limited capacity to provide services, energy deprived communities will not deliver these basics at all and employment opportunities will be limited because no enterprises can function or grow.
Yet when the UN’s millennium development goals were set in 2000, energy didn’t feature. That has now been remedied: sustainable energy access is one of the key new UN sustainable development goals (SDG 7), that will shape the global post-2015 development agenda. Then energy is globally recognized as an enabler.
In terms of electricity alone, the global population without access to electricity was 1.1 billion people in 2012. Within this framework, Enel has been fully supporting SDG 7, as well as the UN Sustainable Energy for All initiative since its launch in 2011, and has been responding to the energy deficit in 10 countries with its ENabling ELectricity program. Involving more than 2.5 million people so far, the program works in both rural and urban areas worldwide.
Through the same program, Enel is committed to SDG 7 to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy to 3 million beneficiaries in Africa, Asia and Latin America by 2020, thanks to several initiatives for abating economic barriers to access electricity, promoting technical training and capacity building on energy, fostering energy efficiency to lower the cost of energy, promoting energy awareness and education on energy sources [2.5Mn]; and also includes projects to provide technological and infrastructural accessibility to clean energy – such as the development of mini-grids [500K].
Enel also committed, as in SDG 4, to support education activities involving children, families, schools and colleges, thus ensuring inclusive and equitable quality education to 400 thousands beneficiaries by 2020, such as through the Powering Education project in Kenya. And, as in SDG 8, to promote inclusive and sustainable economic growth and employment for 500 thousands beneficiaries.
There are over seven billion people on Earth now, and in 2050 there will be more than 9 billion. Again, one of the fundamental issues is the world’s population growth and, with more and more developing countries wanting to offer their growing populations the opportunity to consume fossil fuel products, it is obvious that the global oil supply will not sustain an overpopulated planet.
That’s the reason why it is crucial that even large companies understand the evolution of renewable technology, where it is going and stop swimming against it. Renewable energy has now reached a point where no one can really change its course.
Renewables represent a fast and effective response to the need of energy, crucial to provide energy access or to respond to the increasing electricity demand of emerging markets. As Enel, we are deeply aware of the urgency to take action to combat climate change and its impacts, and renewables will be the enablers of the de-carbonization process we are now leading to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050.
Along with energy access and renewables, a fully effective implementation of Energy SDG calls for scaling up the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency. Since its inception, the SE4All initiative has been emphasizing the need of rendering energy use in a more efficient way, as one of the world’s most crucial contribution to mitigate climate change.
The Sustainable Energy for All initiative (SE4All) today urged governments, businesses and financial institutions to act much faster and go much further to deliver on the ambitious goals of ensuring sustainable energy for all while keeping the global temperature rise within two degrees Celsius.
SE4All, a unique multi-stakeholder partnership backed by the United Nations and World Bank, is acting as a catalyst for a huge global movement for revolutionary change in the world’s energy systems, helping to build working alliances across the public sector, private sector and civil society and foster innovative policies, markets, technologies and financing mechanisms.
Finding cleaner ways to produce energy – responsible for 60 percent of current greenhouse gas emissions – and more efficient ways to distribute and use it, is central to the fight against climate change.
And since its launch, Enel has been supporting the SE4All to this target and consequently we have been invited to become co-convener of the SE4All Energy Efficiency Accelerator Platform for the Power sector.
As a global electric utility, we are then called to focus on the following energy-efficiency opportunities concerning transmission and distribution infrastructure:
- Maximize the impact from technology by investing in smart meters in order to improve the operational performance of the network and tackle both technical and non-technical losses;
- Accelerate the Digital Transformation of the network.
On the other hand, in developing countries, one of the biggest challenges of electric utilities is the distribution losses reduction. Energy losses represent an economic loss for the country: its optimization and improvement on energy efficiency would partially cover the expected demand rise in electrical consumption, without the necessity to increase the installed capacity. On average, electricity utilities in Sub-Saharan Africa lose 25% of all power supplied due to operational inefficiencies. To illustrate the potential of energy efficiency, SE4All partner Accenture has calculated that just 75 of these new pledges by a range of businesses across the developed and developing world represent an estimated total energy saving in 2016-2020 of 62,000 gigawatt hours (GWh) – the equivalent of nine months’ energy use for the whole of Paris.
“This is the tip of the iceberg. The potential is vast – but it won’t be realised without a massive scaling up of this kind of action to levels far beyond what we have seen so far,” said Rachel Kyte, incoming Chief Executive Officer of SE4All and Special Representative of the UN Secretary General for Sustainable Energy for All.
“In the next few years we have a historic window of opportunity to shake up business-as-usual, building on the momentum of the SDGs and COP21 and the goodwill of this growing global movement. But unless we grab that opportunity, the window will quickly close,” added Ms Kyte.
A step-change in financing will be crucial. SE4All’s Global Tracking Framework 2015 estimates that investment in sustainable energy will need to triple from current levels, to more than one trillion US dollars a year from now to 2030, to meet the SE4All targets and Sustainable Development Goal 7.
Action is coalescing on several fronts to bridge this investment gap. For example, some 140 banks and institutional investors managing close to USD 4 trillion have recently committed to a major increase in energy efficiency lending and investment in their portfolios.
 United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs – The World Population Prospects .
 Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund — Energy subsidy reform in Sub-Saharan Africa: experiences and lessons .
La legge portuale italiana vieta ad un operatore la gestione di più aree demaniali aventi ad oggetto la stessa attività di impresa in un medesimo porto. Analizziamo come questo divieto potrebbe essere stato modificato a seguito della recente riforma del 2016.
Proseguiamo ad esaminare una recente sentenza del Tribunale Amministrativo Regionale della Toscana, la quale ha chiarito gli obblighi gravanti sull’Amministrazione Pubblica in caso di espropriazione di aree private nei porti italiani.
La recente estensione del campo di applicazione del Regolamento generale di esenzione per categoria (2014) alla concessione di aiuti di stato a porti ed aeroporti dell’UE ci induce a ricordare due recenti sentenze della Corte di Giustizia in merito agli aiuti di Stato nel settore marittimo e – in particolare – alla compensazione degli obblighi di servizio pubblico alle imprese incaricate della gestione di servizi d’interesse economico generale.
Poi, analizziamo due sentenze, provenienti da Regno Unito e Spagna, riguardanti l’applicazione di due importanti convenzioni internazionali nell’ambito de trasporti internazionali, le Hague-Visby Rules e la CMR. La sentenza inglese conferma che la mancata materiale emissione di una polizza di carico non rileva al fine di escludere l’applicabilità della normativa uniforme, mentre la sentenza spagnola ci fornisce una definizione di “colpa parificata a dolo” ai fini dell’esclusione del limite di responsabilità vettoriale.
Anche la Corte di Cassazione italiana ha emesso due interessanti sentenze in materia di trasporti. La Suprema Corte italiana ha negato al portatore della polizza di carico la titolarità ad agire nei confronti di un vettore marittimo per danni alla merce, in caso di mancata girata della polizza di carico dal ricevitore al portatore, e ha considerato uno “scambio di contenitori” quale ipotesi di colpa grave del vettore stradale.
Infine, analizziamo una sentenza della Commissione Tributaria di Roma, relativa alla IRESA, la tassa sul rumore negli aeroporti italiani. Tale sentenza, in considerazione del fatto che la Regione Lazio ha disatteso i principi e le finalità previsti dalla normativa nazionale ed europea relativi alla destinazione del gettito derivante dall’imposta, ha concluso per la disapplicazione dell’IRESA per come prevista dalla normativa regionale.
There’s a fair European wind blowing
Probably the most important outcome of the French election is not so much the actual electoral defeat of the National Front but the decision of that party to remove from its policy programme the idea of withdrawing from the Euro and promoting a referendum on Frexit. In other words, those parties which have based their political offer to the electorate on the negative impact of globalization and the hard impact of immigration, no longer see the solution as the break-up of the EU.
The same in happening in the Netherlands and even in the UK where the May government is promoting the need to address the negative aspects of globalization and migration in a substantive manner and not long saying that Brexit itself is the answer.
This is a window of opportunity that the EU must embrace. The underlying issues of migration and globalization must be addressed. But if they are addressed in a satisfactory manner the EU itself is not being challenged. There is a recognition in France and in the Netherlands, and even in Germany given the results in the recent Lander elections among the vast majority of the electorate that the EU remains a valid project and that the solutions are best found within its remit.
If Macron and Merkel can get together with the Italy and Spain, much can be done. From an insider’s point of view the only possible hiccup in catching this favourable wind is the capacity of the Commission to recognize it.
Alitalia: amministrazione straordinaria secondo round
Con decreto del Ministero dello Sviluppo Economico (MISE) del 2 maggio 2017 è stata disposta la procedura di amministrazione straordinaria di Alitalia Società Aerea Italiana S.p.A. ai sensi del d.l. n. 347/2003 (c.d. legge Marzano) e con sentenza del Tribunale di Civitavecchia dell’11 maggio 2017 è stato dichiarato lo stato di insolvenza.
Il Tribunale può inserire in sede di omologazione clausole modificative della proposta di concordato?
La Cassazione 3 aprile 2017, n. 8632 ha stabilito che il decreto di omologazione può essere reclamato, anche in assenza di opposizioni, in relazione ad addizioni estranee alla proposta introdotte d’imperio dal Tribunale, che non rappresentino semplici formule organizzative della fase di esecuzione del concordato.
La banca risponde del danno causato alla società dagli amministratori per ricorso abusivo al credito?
La Cassazione 20 aprile 2017, n. 9983 conferma un proprio precedente secondo cui la banca può essere ritenuta responsabile per concorso nell’illecito, distinguendo la fattispecie da quella della concessione abusiva di credito.
Cause di ineleggibilità e decadenza del sindaco professionista in uno studio associato
Ai sensi dell’art. 2399, lett. c), c.c. è ineleggibile, e se eletto decade dall’ufficio, il sindaco che intrattiene con la società o sue controllate rapporti di natura patrimoniale che ne compromettano l’indipendenza. Ci si interroga se il caso in cui il sindaco sia parte di uno studio associato che presta attività di consulenza alla medesima società integri l’ipotesi prevista dalla legge. Sebbene il quesito sia risolto tendenzialmente in senso affermativo, permangono tuttavia dubbi circa i criteri adottati dalla Corte di Cassazione al fine di determinare i casi in cui, concretamente, l’indipendenza del sindaco possa dirsi compromessa.
La portata della delega gestoria nelle s.r.l.: contenuto e limiti
La Suprema Corte, con sentenza n. 25085 del 7 dicembre 2016, ha riconosciuto la legittimità di una delega di gestione di carattere generale, da parte del consiglio di amministrazione a favore di singoli consiglieri delegati con esercizio disgiunto dei poteri, nella misura in cui la stessa non sia diretta ad escludere l’esercizio di un concorrente potere di gestione da parte dell’organo collegiale amministrativo.
Trattamento di dati per finalità di marketing: la tutela delle persone giuridiche
Il Garante per la Protezione dei Dati Personali, con provvedimento n. 4 del 12 gennaio 2017, ha precisato la disciplina relativa al trattamento di dati personali per finalità di marketing, dichiarando illegittimo sia il trattamento di dati raccolti per il tramite di moduli presenti all’interno dei siti internet delle società sia il trattamento di dati (i.e. le utenze telefoniche) autonomamente reperiti sul web.
La responsabilità amministrativa degli enti ex d.lgs. n. 231/2001 all’interno dei gruppi di imprese
È ammissibile una responsabilità, ai sensi del d.lgs. n. 231 del 2001, della società capogruppo per reati commessi nell’ambito delle attività svolte dalle società da essa controllate a condizione che a) il soggetto che agisce per conto della holding concorra con il soggetto che commette il reato per conto della persona giuridica controllata; e che b) possa ritenersi che la holding abbia ricevuto un concreto vantaggio o perseguito un effettivo interesse a mezzo del reato commesso nell’ambito dell’attività svolta dalla società controllata.
Considerazioni in merito alla rinunciabilità dell’effetto risolutorio della diffida ad adempiere
La sentenza della Corte di Cassazione, sez. II, n. 4205 del 3 marzo 2016 offre l’opportunità per dare brevemente conto delle diverse posizioni di giurisprudenza e dottrina in materia di rinunciabilità dell’effetto risolutorio della diffida ad adempiere.
La responsabilità degli amministratori non operativi e il dovere di agire in modo informato
La responsabilità degli amministratori privi di deleghe operative, alla luce della sentenza della Corte di Cassazione Civile, Sez. I, 31 agosto 2016, n. 17441 in commento, non può discendere da una generica condotta di omessa vigilanza – tale da essere identificata nei fatti come una responsabilità oggettiva – ma deve essere ricondotta alla violazione del dovere di agire informati, sia sulla base delle informazioni che devono essere rilasciate da parte degli amministratori operativi, sia sulla base delle informazioni che gli amministratori non operativi possono acquisire di propria iniziativa. L’individuazione dei presupposti della responsabilità degli amministratori deleganti si inquadra, pertanto, in un discorso che valorizza la differenziazione dei doveri imposti agli amministratori delegati e quelli tipici degli amministratori non esecutivi.
Le Sezioni Unite della Corte di Cassazione sulla qualificazione e l’impugnazione del lodo non definitivo e del lodo parziale
Lodo che decide parzialmente il merito della controversia, immediatamente impugnabile a norma dell’art. 827 c.p.c., comma 3, è sia quello di condanna generica ex art. 278 c.p.c. sia quello che decide una o alcune delle domande proposte senza definire l’intero giudizio, non essendo immediatamente impugnabili i lodi che decidono questioni pregiudiziali o preliminari.